Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Iota-carrageenan  COVID-19 treatment studies for Iota-carragee..  C19 studies: Iota-carragee..  Iota-carragee..   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Aspirin Metformin
Bamlanivimab Molnupiravir
Bromhexine Nigella Sativa
Budesonide Nitazoxanide
Casirivimab/i.. Povidone-Iod..
Colchicine Probiotics
Conv. Plasma Proxalutamide
Curcumin Quercetin
Favipiravir Remdesivir
Fluvoxamine Sotrovimab
Hydroxychloro.. Vitamin A
Iota-carragee.. Vitamin C
Ivermectin Vitamin D
Melatonin Zinc

Other Adoption (DB RCT)80%0.20 [0.05-0.78]symp. case2/19610/198Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PrEP80%0.20 [0.05-0.78]2/19610/19880% improvementAll studies80%0.20 [0.04-0.89]2/19610/19880% improvement1 iota-carrageenan COVID-19 Oct 18, 2021Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.11Effect extraction pre-specifiedFavors iota-carrageenanFavors control
Database of all iota-carrageenan COVID-19 studies. Submit updates/corrections.
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Jul 26
In Vitro Alsaidi et al., Marine Drugs, doi:10.3390/md19080418 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model
Details   In Vitro and In Silico analysis showing SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of carageenan, and synergistic activity from the combination of carrageenan and griffithsin.
Jun 14
Early Hemilä et al., Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, doi:10.1002/prp2.810 (Peer Reviewed) Carrageenan nasal spray may double the rate of recovery from coronavirus and influenza virus infections: Re-analysis of randomized trial data
Details   Individual patient data meta analysis of two RCTs showing nasal iota-carrageenan improved recovery rate and shortened the duration of long colds. There was a 71% reduction in the risk of long colds (>20 days). The increase in recovery rat..
Apr 28
Early Schütz et al., American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, doi:10.1152/ajplung.00552.2020 (Peer Reviewed) Carrageenan-containing over-the-counter nasal and oral sprays inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cultures
Details   In Vitro study showing that carrageenan-containing nose spray and mouth spray inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cultures.
Apr 27
In Vitro Varese et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.441512 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan prevents the replication of SARS-CoV-2 on an in vitro respiratory epithelium model
Details   In Vitro Calu-3 (human respiratory epithelial cell line) study showing that iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2.
Apr 15
PrEP Figueroa et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S328486 (preprint 4/15/2021) (Peer Reviewed) symp. case, ↓80.2%, p=0.03 Efficacy of a nasal spray containing Iota-Carrageenan in the prophylaxis of COVID-19 in hospital personnel dedicated to patients care with COVID-19 disease A pragmatic multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (CARR-COV-02)
Details   Prophylaxis RCT with 394 healthcare workers, 196 treated with iota-carrageenan, showing significantly lower symptomatic cases with treatment. There were no deaths or hospitalizations. There was a significant number of PCR- symptomatic cas..
Feb 17
In Vitro Morokutti-Kurz et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237480 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and inhibits viral replication in vitro
Details   In Vitro study showing that SARS-CoV-2 is inhibited by iota-carrageenan in a dose dependent manner and to the same extent as other respiratory viruses for which a clinical benefit has been proven. Authors note that clinical data and post ..
Jan 11
PrEP Chahla et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001433 (Peer Reviewed) m/s case, ↓95.2%, p=0.002 A randomized trial - intensive treatment based in ivermectin and iota-carrageenan as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare agents
Details   Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina, 117 healthcare workers treated with ivermectin and iota-carrageenan, and 117 controls, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. There were no moderate/severe cases..
Dec 29
Review Hans et al., Bioresource Technology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.biteb.2020.100623 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae and its application in combating COVID-19: Mini review
Details   Review of the antiviral activity of marine sulfated polysaccharides including carrageenan, and the mechanisms of action for inhibiting different stages of viral infection.
Nov 17
PrEP Carvallo et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1007 (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓99.9%, p<0.0001 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel
Details   Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and iota-carrageenan showing 0 of 788 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 237 of 407 control. The authors later reported that carrageenan is not necessary in this protocol [1].
Aug 24
In Vitro Song et al., Food & Function, doi:10.1039/D0FO02017F (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing significant antiviral activity of marine sulfated polysaccharides iota-carrageenan, sea cucumber sulfated polysaccharide, and fucoidan.
Aug 21
In Vitro Bansal et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.225854 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan and Xylitol inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture
Details   In Vitro study showing that iota-carrageenan in concentrations as low as 6 µg/mL (easily achievable with existing nasal sprays) inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cell cultures.
Jun 29
In SIlico Sattari et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) Repositioning Therapeutics for COVID-19: Virtual Screening of the Potent Synthetic and Natural Compounds as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Inhibitors
Details   In Silico study identifying kappa-carrageenan and other compounds as potential candidates for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition.
Early Koenighofer et al., Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1186/2049-6958-9-57 (Peer Reviewed) Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials
Details   Analysis of 2 RCTs concluding that carrageenan nasal spray reduced duration of virus-confirmed common colds, increased viral clearance, and reduced relapses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.