Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Figueroa (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.05-0.78] symp. case 2/196 10/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.035 Prophylaxis 80% 0.20 [0.05-0.78] 2/196 10/198 80% improvement All studies 80% 0.20 [0.04-0.89] 2/196 10/198 80% improvement 1 iota-carrageenan COVID-19 study Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.035 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors iota-carrageenan Favors control
Iota-carrageenan COVID-19 studies. Submit updates/corrections.
Dec 8
In Vitro Fröba et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms222413202 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Iota-Carrageenan Inhibits Replication of SARS-CoV-2 and the Respective Variants of Concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta
Details   In Vitro study of iota-, lambda-, and kappa-carrageenan sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweed on SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan type and variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta, showing that all three carrageenan types had antiviral activit..
Sep 7
N/A Morokutti-Kurz et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S325861 The Saliva of Probands Sucking an Iota-Carrageenan Containing Lozenge Inhibits Viral Binding and Replication of the Most Predominant Common Cold Viruses and SARS-CoV-2
Details   Prospective study of 31 subjects analyzing iota-carrageenan concentration in saliva after using an iota-carrageenan containing lozenge, showing sufficient concentration to neutralize common respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2. For SA..
Jul 26
In Vitro Alsaidi et al., Marine Drugs, doi:10.3390/md19080418 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model
Details   In Vitro and In Silico analysis showing SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of carageenan, and synergistic activity from the combination of carrageenan and griffithsin.
Jun 14
Early Hemilä et al., Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, doi:10.1002/prp2.810 Carrageenan nasal spray may double the rate of recovery from coronavirus and influenza virus infections: Re-analysis of randomized trial data
Details   Individual patient data meta analysis of two RCTs showing nasal iota-carrageenan improved recovery rate and shortened the duration of long colds. There was a 71% reduction in the risk of long colds (>20 days). The increase in recovery rat..
Apr 28
Early Schütz et al., American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, doi:10.1152/ajplung.00552.2020 Carrageenan-containing over-the-counter nasal and oral sprays inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cultures
Details   In Vitro study showing that carrageenan-containing nose spray and mouth spray inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cultures.
Apr 27
In Vitro Varese et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.441512 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Iota-carrageenan prevents the replication of SARS-CoV-2 on an in vitro respiratory epithelium model
Details   In Vitro Calu-3 (human respiratory epithelial cell line) study showing that iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2.
Apr 15
PrEPPEP Figueroa et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S328486 (preprint 4/15/2021)
symp. case, ↓80.2%, p=0.03
Efficacy of a nasal spray containing Iota-Carrageenan in the prophylaxis of COVID-19 in hospital personnel dedicated to patients care with COVID-19 disease A pragmatic multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (CARR-COV-02)
Details   Prophylaxis RCT with 394 healthcare workers, 196 treated with iota-carrageenan, showing significantly lower symptomatic cases with treatment. There were no deaths or hospitalizations. There was a significant number of PCR- symptomatic cas..
Feb 17
In Vitro Morokutti-Kurz et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237480 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Iota-carrageenan neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and inhibits viral replication in vitro
Details   In Vitro study showing that SARS-CoV-2 is inhibited by iota-carrageenan in a dose dependent manner and to the same extent as other respiratory viruses for which a clinical benefit has been proven. Authors note that clinical data and post ..
Jan 11
PrEPPEP Chahla et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001433
m/s case, ↓95.2%, p=0.002
A randomized trial - intensive treatment based in ivermectin and iota-carrageenan as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare agents
Details   Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina, 117 healthcare workers treated with ivermectin and iota-carrageenan, and 117 controls, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. There were no moderate/severe cases..
Dec 29
Review Hans et al., Bioresource Technology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.biteb.2020.100623 (Review)
Antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae and its application in combating COVID-19: Mini review
Details   Review of the antiviral activity of marine sulfated polysaccharides including carrageenan, and the mechanisms of action for inhibiting different stages of viral infection.
Nov 17
PrEPPEP Carvallo et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1007
cases, ↓99.9%, p<0.0001
Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel
Details   Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and iota-carrageenan showing 0 of 788 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 237 of 407 control. The authors later reported that carrageenan is not necessary in this protocol . See for discu..
Aug 24
In Vitro Song et al., Food & Function, doi:10.1039/D0FO02017F (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing significant antiviral activity of marine sulfated polysaccharides iota-carrageenan, sea cucumber sulfated polysaccharide, and fucoidan.
Aug 21
In Vitro Bansal et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0259943 (preprint 8/21/20) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Iota-carrageenan and xylitol inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cell culture
Details   In Vitro study showing that iota-carrageenan in concentrations as low as 6 µg/mL (easily achievable with existing nasal sprays) inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cell cultures.
Jun 29
In Silico Sattari et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
In Silico
Repositioning Therapeutics for COVID-19: Virtual Screening of the Potent Synthetic and Natural Compounds as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Inhibitors
Details   In Silico study identifying kappa-carrageenan and other compounds as potential candidates for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition.
Early Koenighofer et al., Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1186/2049-6958-9-57 Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials
Details   Analysis of 2 RCTs concluding that carrageenan nasal spray reduced duration of virus-confirmed common colds, increased viral clearance, and reduced relapses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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