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00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Figueroa (DB RCT)80%0.20 [0.04-0.91]symp. case2/19610/198Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PrEP80%0.20 [0.04-0.91]2/19610/19880% improvementAll studies80%0.20 [0.04-0.91]2/19610/19880% improvement1 iota-carrageenan COVID-19 studyc19ic.com 7/28/21Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.08 (p = 0.019)Effect extraction pre-specifiedLower RiskIncreased Risk
4/28
Early Schütz et al., American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, doi:10.1152/ajplung.00552.2020 (Peer Reviewed) Carrageenan-containing over-the-counter nasal and oral sprays inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cultures
Details   In Vitro study showing that carrageenan-containing nose spray and mouth spray inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cultures.
4/27
In Vitro Varese et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.441512 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan prevents the replication of SARS-CoV-2 on an in vitro respiratory epithelium model
Details   In Vitro Calu-3 (human respiratory epithelial cell line) study showing that iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2.
4/15
PrEP Figueroa et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.21255409 (Preprint) symp. case, ↓79.8%, p=0.04 Efficacy of a nasal spray containing Iota-Carrageenan in the prophylaxis of COVID-19 in hospital personnel dedicated to patients care with COVID-19 disease A pragmatic multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (CARR-COV-02)
Details   Prophylaxis RCT with 394 healthcare workers, 196 treated with iota-carrageenan, showing significantly lower symptomatic cases with treatment. There were no deaths or hospitalizations. There was a significant number of PCR- symptomatic cas..
2/17
In Vitro Morokutti-Kurz et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237480 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and inhibits viral replication in vitro
Details   In Vitro study showing that SARS-CoV-2 is inhibited by iota-carrageenan in a dose dependent manner and to the same extent as other respiratory viruses for which a clinical benefit has been proven. Authors note that clinical data and post ..
8/21
In Vitro Bansal et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.225854 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan and Xylitol inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture
Details   In Vitro study showing that iota-carrageenan in concentrations as low as 6 µg/mL (easily achievable with existing nasal sprays) inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cell cultures.
2014
Early Koenighofer et al., Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1186/2049-6958-9-57 (Peer Reviewed) Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials
Details   Analysis of 2 RCTs concluding that carrageenan nasal spray reduced duration of virus-confirmed common colds, increased viral clearance, and reduced relapses.
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